Security. Restricting access based on something other than the identity of the user. See permission, amp, authentication, and Access Control List (ACL). See also Authentication and Access Control the Understanding and Using Security Guide.
Access Control List (ACL)
Database. Atomicity (a set of changes either takes place as a whole or doesn't take place at all), Consistency (system rules are enforced, such as that no two documents should have the same identifier), Isolation (uncompleted transactions are not otherwise visible), and Durability (once a commit is made it will not be lost).
Marklogic. XML content that includes recurring element names and which can be split into multiple documents with the recurring element as the document root. For more information, see Splitting Large XML Files Into Multiple Documents in the mlcp User Guide.
MarkLogic. Used for tasks like computing a sum or count over an element, attribute, or field range index, or many of these range indexes. Aggregate functions are most useful for analytics that produce a small number of results, such as computing a single numeric value across a set of range index values. See Introduction to Aggregate Functions in the Search Developer's Guide.
MarkLogic. An alerting application is used to notify users when new content is available that matches a predefined (and usually stored) query. An alert is based on a reverse query. Alerts are used with QBFR (Query-Based Flexible Replication). See Configuring Alerting With Flexible Replication in the Flexible Replication Guide.
Amazon Machine Image (AMI)
Cloud. An encrypted machine image that contains all information necessary to boot instances of software. Instances of MarkLogic Server are created from the stock Amazon Linux AMI and have been pre-installed with MarkLogic and the necessary dependancies. A virtual appliance for use with Amazon's Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2).
Amazon Web Services (AWS)
Cloud. The Amazon Cloud Computing service. For details, see http://aws.amazon.com/.
MarkLogic. An amp provides a user with the additional authorization to execute a specific function by temporarily giving the user additional roles. For details on amps, see Temporarily Increasing Privileges with Amps in the Understanding and Using Security Guide.
MarkLogic. A compressed MarkLogic Server database archive created using the mlcp export command. You can use an archive to restore or copy database content and metadata with the mlcp import command. For details, see Exporting to an Archive in the mlcp User Guide.
MarkLogic. Data that has aged beyond its useful life in the online storage tiers and is typically taken offline. See active data.
Semantics. In a system that does inference, asserted triples are those triples that are in the database before inferencing, as opposed to inferred triples which are the result of the inferencing process. See inference, inferred triples, ontology triples, and triple.
General. Asynchronous I/O, or non-blocking I/O is a form of input/output processing that permits other processing to continue before the transmission has finished. See synchronous.
Flexible Replication. A configuration in which the Master does not wait for confirmation that the update has been received by the Replica before committing the transaction and proceeding with additional transactions. Flexible Replication and database replication are asynchronous.
Attribute-Based Control (ABAC)
Security. A form of security based on attributes assigned to a role or object. ABAC is a logical access control model that controls access to objects by evaluating rules against the attributes of the entities (subject and object) actions and the environment associated with a request. See MarkLogic Security Model in the Understanding and Using Security Guide.
Security. The process of verifying user credentials for a named user, usually based on a username and password. Authentication generally verifies user credentials and associates a session with the authenticated user. It does not grant any access or authority to perform any actions on the system. Authentication can be done internally inside MarkLogic Server, or externally by means of a Kerberos or LDAP server.
Security. The process of allowing a user to perform some action, such as create, read, update, or delete a document or execute a program, based on the user's identity. Authorization defines what an authenticated user is allowed to do on the server. When an App Server is configured for external authentication, authorization can be done either by MarkLogic Server or by LDAP.
Semantics. Backward chaining inference is inference done at query time; each query looks at the ontology and expands the query appropriately. Backward chaining inference is more resource intensive at query time, but less costly during ingestion and indexing. See also forward-chaining inference and inference.
MarkLogic. Bitemporal documents are associated with both a valid time and a system time. Data in a bitemporal format provides the user with a complete history (audit trail) of data in the database. For more information, see Understanding Temporal Documents in the Temporal Developer's Guide. See also non-temporal.
Semantics. (also known as a bnode or anonymous resource) A subject or object in an RDF graph that has no IRI (Internationalized Resource Identifier) or resource identifier. Typically used to group together other values for a triple. A blank node is represented by a prefixed name with an underscore prefix (
_:mytriple). See bnode.
BLOB (Binary Large Object)
BNF (Backus Normal Form or Backus-Naur Form)
MarkLogic. A MarkLogic Server host machine used by a foreign cluster to initiate communication with the local cluster.
MarkLogic. The permissions set on a document define access to capabilities for that document. Capabilities include read, insert, update, and execute. Each permission consists of a capability and a role. See permission.
CBD (Concise Bounded Definition)
Semantics. The Concise Bounded Definition (CBD) specification is used to describe one or more nodes in the RDF graph as a resource. See the W3C specification: http://www.w3.org/Submission/CBD/. See also
CDH (Cloudera Distribution Hadoop)
Hadoop. Cloudera's Distribution Including Apache Hadoop, an open source data management platform based on Apache Hadoop. One of the Hadoop distributions supported by the MarkLogic Connector for Hadoop. See the MarkLogic Connector for Hadoop Developer's Guide.
CEP (Complex Event Processing)
MarkLogic. Complex event processing combines data from multiple sources in its tracking and analysis of streams of information about events, and uses that information to infer events or patterns that may suggest more complicated circumstances. The goal of complex event processing is to quickly identify and respond to meaningful events.
Security. A trusted third party that certifies the identity of entities, such as users, databases, administrators, clients, and servers. When an entity requests certification, the CA verifies its identity and grants a certificate, which is signed with the CA's private key. If the CA is trusted, then any certificate it issues is trusted unless it has been revoked.
Security. An electronic document that incorporates a digital signature to bind together a public key with identity information, such as the name of a person or an organization, address, and so on. The certificate can be used to verify that a public key belongs to an individual or organization.
Security. AMarkLogic construct that is used to generate certificate requests for the various hosts in a cluster. The template defines the name of the certificate, a description, and identity information about the owner of the certificate.
Security. An algorithm for encrypting information so that it's only readable by someone with a key. A cipher can be either symmetric and asymmetric. Symmetric ciphers use the same key for both encryption and decryption. Asymmetric ciphers use a public and private key.
CLOB (Character Large Object)
Cloud Formation (CF)
Cloud. The AWS Cloud Formation service for provisioning startup of AWS resources. For details, see Deploying MarkLogic on EC2 Using CloudFormation in the MarkLogic Server on Amazon EC2 Guide and http://aws.amazon.com/cloudformation/. MarkLogic CloudFormation templates are available from http://developer.marklogic.com/products/aws.
MarkLogic. Multiple instances of MarkLogic Server configured to run as a cluster. The cluster has multiple machines (hosts), each running an instance of MarkLogic Server. Each host in a cluster is sometimes called a node. Each node in the cluster has its own copy of all of the configuration information for the entire cluster.
MarkLogic. A collection is a group of documents that enable queries to efficiently target subsets of content within MarkLogic Server. Collections are described as part of the W3C XQuery specification, but their implementation is undefined. MarkLogic has chosen to emphasize collections as a powerful and high-performance mechanism for selecting sets of documents against which queries can be processed. See in Collections in the Search Developer's Guide for more information about collections.
MarkLogic. A list of unique words or values, from either an entire database (words only) or from within named elements or attributes (words or values). You can also define lexicons that allow quick access to the document and collection URIs in the database, and you can create word lexicons on named fields. See Browsing With Lexicons in the Search Developer's Guide.
Database. To end a transaction and make the changes made by the transaction visible in the database. Single-statement transactions are automatically committed upon successful completion of the statement. Multi-statement transactions are explicitly committed, but the commit only occurs if and when the calling statement successfully completes.
MarkLogic. A constraint is a name/value pair used to filter search results. A constraint can be used in a search UI to create the facets as part of faceted navigation where every facet is a constraint on the search results. For a constraint to also function as a facet, you have to be able to retrieve all its values. If you search docs.marklogic.com for 'xquery', the results will break-down by category of documents that mention XQuery. The categories of documents are the constraints on the search results.
MarkLogic. The database and App Server combination against which your query executes. Query Console automatically builds a list of available content sources for your MarkLogic Server and makes it available in the Content Source list.
Geospatial. A geospatial coordinate system is a set of mappings that map places on Earth to a set of numbers. The vertical axis is represented by a latitude coordinate, and the horizontal axis is represented by a longitude coordinate, and together they make up a coordinate system that is used to map places on the Earth. For more details, see Latitude and Longitude Coordinates in MarkLogic Server in the Search Developer's Guide.
CPF (Content Processing Framework)
Content Processing Framework. The Content Processing Framework in MarkLogic Server supports multi-step processing as part of content processing applications. Each step in the process performs a particular task or set of tasks. Content processing is a way to programmatically add value to your content. See Overview of the Content Processing Framework in the Content Processing Framework Guide. See also pipeline, domain, and trigger.
CURIE (Compact URI Expression)
Semantics. A shortened version of a URI (Uniform Resource Identifier) signifying a specific resource.D
Database. See Replicate.
Semantics. A project aiming to extract structured content from the information created as part of the Wikipedia project. Information in Wikipedia is represented as RDF triples, making it an excellent source of facts as triples.
Semantics. A metadata vocabulary containing metadata terms maintained by the Dublin Core Metadata Initiative (DCMI). The current set of the Dublin Core vocabulary includes terms of the Dublin Core Metadata Element Set, along with elements, classes, and DCMI type vocabularies. The Dublin Core vocabulary existed before the Dublin Core Ontology, which is a lightweight RDFS (Resource Description Framework Schema) vocabulary for describing generic metadata.
Semantics. The default graph is the RDF graph where triples are inserted if you don't specify a named graph. In MarkLogic, the default graph has the IRI
http://marklogic.com/semantics#default-graph. You can specify a different collection during the load process and load triples into a named graph. See graph.
DLS (Document Library Services)
MarkLogic. A MarkLogic data (processing) node. See e-node.
MarkLogic. Refers to how a document is stored in MarkLogic databases; it can be encoded in XML, binary, JSON, or text format.
Content Processing Framework. A domain defines the scope of documents to process. Domains are used to organize and demarcate different sets content in order to process groups of documents in different ways. See Flexible Replication and Understanding and Using Domains in the Content Processing Framework Guide.
EBS (Amazon Elastic Block Store)
Elastic Block Store (EBS - Amazon Elastic Block Store)
Cloud. A type of storage designed specifically for Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2) instances. Amazon EBS allows you to create volumes that can be mounted as devices by Amazon EC2 instances.
Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2)
Cloud. A commercial web service that enables you to launch and manage server instances and host applications in Amazon's data centers using APIs or available tools and utilities. The Amazon EC2 website is available at: http://aws.amazon.com/ec2/.
Elastic Load Balancer (ELB)
Cloud. A service that automatically distributes and balances application traffic among multiple EC2 instances. For details, see http://docs.aws.amazon.com/gettingstarted/latest/wah/getting-started-create-lb.html.
Semantics. See unmanaged triples.
HTTP server. An XQuery module on MarkLogic Server that is invoked by and responds to an HTTP request for monitoring information.
MarkLogic. A MarkLogic evaluator node. See d-node.
Enterprise Service Bus (ESB)
General. A software architecture model used for designing and implementing communication between mutually interacting software applications in a service-oriented architecture (SOA). As a software architectural model for distributed computing it is a specialty variant of the more general client server model and promotes agility and flexibility with regards to communication between applications. Its primary use is in enterprise application integration (EAI) of heterogeneous and complex landscapes. (definition fromWikipedia)
Security. An Execute Privilege provides the authority to perform a protected action. Examples of protected actions are the ability to execute a specific user-defined function, the ability to execute a built-in function (for example,
XQuery. An user-defined XQuery module that implements additional resource services that are made available through the MarkLogic REST API. For details, see Extending the REST API in the REST Application Developer's Guide.
Security. An object that specifies which authentication protocol and authorization scheme to use, along with any other parameters necessary for LDAP authentication. After an external authentication configuration object is created, multiple App Servers can use the same configuration object.
MarkLogic. A binary document that is not stored in a MarkLogic database and whose contents are not managed by the server. For details, see Choosing a Binary Format in the Loading Content Into MarkLogic Server Guide.F
MarkLogic. A constraint used for navigation on search results, providing a set of values that exist matching documents. Facets usually include a count of the resulting number of distinct values. Facets returned by a search include the counts and values needed to generate the user interface for the results. For example, a data set of articles could provide facets on author and publication date.
MarkLogic. A type of navigation in the user interface that makes use of facets. With faceted navigation, a user can access focused search results by narrowing the search criteria through the use of facets.
MarkLogic. A field is typically a small subset of the whole database, a portion of the content that you might want to query as a single unit, such as an abstract. Fields have their own set of indexes, independent of the database indexes. Because the field represents only a relatively small percentage of the content, the relative cost of the extra indexing is small. See Overview of Fields in the Administrator's Guide.
MarkLogic. An implementation of replication based on MarkLogic Server CPF (Content Processing Framework). Flexible replication is single-master, asynchronous, and provides a medium level of throughput and latency. See also QBFR (Query-Based Flexible Replication), domain, pipeline, and Flexible Replication in MarkLogic Server in the Flexible Replication Guide.
XQuery. An XQuery programming expression standing for For, Let, Where, Order by, Return. FLWOR (pronounced 'flower') is loosely analogous to SQL's SELECT-FROM-WHERE and can be used to provide join-like functionality to XML documents.
foaf (friend of a friend)
MarkLogic. The port used on each host to handle XDQP communication with foreign clusters.
MarkLogic. A forest is a collection of documents that is implemented as a physical directory on disk. A group of ‘trees' (‘Forests, because we store trees.') A MarkLogic database is made up of ‘forests'. See stand.
Semantics. Forward chaining inference is inference done at index-time - during the ingestion/indexing of triples, creating new, inferred triples and inserting them into the database. Forward-chaining inference is less resource intensive at query-time, but more costly at ingest-time. See also backward-chaining inference and inference.
MarkLogic. Fragments are XML documents partitioned into smaller blocks of information for storage. You have the option of specifying how the XMP documents are partitioned. See Fragments in the Administrator's Guide for more information.G
Semantics. In RDF (Resource Description Framework), a graph is a collection of triples. In a graph-based RDF model, nodes represent Subject and Object resources, with the Predicate providing the connection between those nodes. Graphs that are assigned a name are referred to as named graphs.
Semantics. Permissions needed by a user in order to read or modify a graph.H
Hadoop. An Apache Software Foundation software framework for reliable, scalable, distributed parallel processing of large data sets across multiple hosts. The Hadoop core framework includes a shared file system (HDFS), a set of common utilities to support distributed processing, and an implementation of the MapReduce programming model. See Apache Hadoop MapReduce Concepts in the MarkLogic Connector for Hadoop Developer's Guide.
HDFS (Hadoop Distributed File System)
Query Console. A record of previously executed versions of a query. Each time you execute a query in Query Console, its query text is saved in the history. Use the history to restore a query to a previous state.
HTML (Hypertext Markup Language)
HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol )
Web. An application protocol for distributed, collaborative, hypermedia information systems, the underpinning of data communication for the World Wide Web. Hypertext is structured text that uses logical links (hyperlinks) between nodes containing text. HTTP is the protocol to exchange or transfer hypertext.I
Semantics. You can do inference manually as part of an inference query or automatically using an inference engine. Given a set of data as triples and a set of rules (such as a ruleset), you can derive or discover new relationships and new facts. Inference can be done at query time (for each query, look at the data and ontology and ruleset(s), and expand the query appropriately), or at index time (on ingestion/index create new inferred triples). Whether the new relationships are explicitly added to the set of data, are returned at query time, or just influence the results, is an implementation issue. See forward-chaining inference, backward-chaining inference, and inferencing.
Semantics. Software that performs inference. An inference engine may also be referred to as a reasoning engine, a reasoner, a semantic reasoner, or a rules engine.
Semantics. Inferencing is the process of discovering new facts and relationships in your data using triples, an ontology, and ruleset(s). Inferencing can be done manually as part of an inference query, or automatically using an inference engine. See inference.
Semantics. In a system that does forward-chaining inference (a system that materializes new triples inferred from existing triples), inferred triples are those triples created by that inferencing. See also asserted triples and backward-chaining inference.
MarkLogic. When using MarkLogic Server as an input source, the query that generates input key-value pairs from the fragments/records in the input split.
MarkLogic. When using MarkLogic Server as an input source, the query that determines which content to include in each split. By default, the split query is built in. In advanced input mode, the split query is part of the job configuration.
Hadoop. The abstract superclass, org.apache.hadoop.mapreduce.InputFormat, of classes through which input splits and input key-value pairs are created for map tasks. The Apache Hadoop MapReduce API includes InputFormat subclasses for using HDFS as an input source. The MarkLogic Connector for Hadoop API provides InputFormat subclasses for using MarkLogic Server as an input source; see InputFormat Subclasses in the MarkLogic Connector for Hadoop Developer's Guide.
Cloud. The running system after an Amazon Machine Image (AMI) is launched. Instances remain running unless they fail or are terminated. When this happens, the data on the instance is no longer available. Once launched, an instance looks very much like a traditional host.
Instance Store (sometimes referred to as Ephemeral Storage)
Cloud. A fixed amount of storage space for an instance. An instance store is not designed to be a permanent storage solution. If an instance reboots, either intentionally or unintentionally, the data on the instance store will survive. If the underlying drive fails or the instance is terminated, the data will be lost.
Cloud. Defines the size of an Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2) instance. The MarkLogic Server instance types are shown in the table at the end of Step 5 in Creating a CloudFormation Stack using the AWS Console in the MarkLogic Server on Amazon EC2 Guide.
IRI (Internationalized Resource Identifier)
Web. An IRI is a compact string that is used for uniquely identifying resources in an RDF triple. IRIs may contain characters from the Universal Character Set (Unicode/ISO 10646), including Chinese or Japanese Kanji, Korean, Cyrillic characters, and so on. See also URI (Uniform Resource Identifier), URL (Uniform Resource Locator), and URN (Uniform Resource Name).J
JFS (Journaling File System)
MarkLogic. A journaling file system is a file system that keeps track of the changes that will be made in a journal (usually a circular log in a dedicated area of the file system) before committing them to the main file system. In the event of a system crash or power failure, such file systems are quicker to bring back online and less likely to become corrupted.
Hadoop. The top level unit of work for a MapReduce system. A job consists of an input data set, a MapReduce program, and configuration properties. Hadoop splits a job into map and reduce tasks which run across a Hadoop cluster. A Job Tracker node in the Hadoop cluster manages MapReduce job requests.
JPA (Java Persistence API)
Java. The Java Persistence API provides a POJO (Plain Old Java Object) persistence model for object-relational mapping.
Security. A ticket-based authentication protocol for trusted hosts on untrusted networks. Kerberos provides users with encrypted tickets that can be used to request access to particular servers. Because Kerberos uses tickets, both the user and the server can verify each other's identity and user passwords do not have to pass through the network.
Security. A piece of information that determines the output of a cipher. SSL/TLS communications begin with a public/private key pair that allow the client and server to securely agree on a session key. The public/private key pair is also used to validate the identity of the server and can optionally be used to verify the identity of the client.L
Database. A value that specifies the amount of time (in seconds) in which frames being written to the forest's journal can differ from the frames being streamed to the backup journal. For example, if the lag limit is set to 30 seconds, the archived journal can lag behind a maximum of 30 seconds worth of transactions compared to the active journal. If the lag limit is exceeded, transactions are halted until the backup journal has caught up. The decision to set your lag limit time is determined by your RPO (Recovery Point Objective).
MarkLogic. A binary document whose contents are managed by MarkLogic Server and whose size exceeds the large size threshold. For details, see Choosing a Binary Format in the Loading Content Into MarkLogic Server Guide.
MarkLogic. A database configuration setting defining the upper bound on the size of small binary documents. Binary documents larger than the threshold are automatically classified as large binary documents.
MarkLogic. A list of unique words or values, either throughout an entire database or within named elements, attributes, or fields. You can also define lexicons that allow quick access to the document and collection URIs in the database. Lexicons are usually backed by a range index. For more information see Querying Lexicons and Range Indexes and Range Indexes and Lexicons, also Browsing With Lexicons in the Search Developer's Guide.
Security. An authentication protocol for accessing server resources over an internet or intranet network. An LDAP server provides a centralized user database where one password can be used to authenticate a user for access to multiple servers in the network. LDAP is supported on Active Directory on Windows Server 2008 and OpenLDAP 2.4 on Linux and other Unix platforms.
Semantics. Linked data describes a method of sharing and querying data on the Web, building on Web technologies such as HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol ), RDF (Resource Description Framework) and IRI (Internationalized Resource Identifier)s, to share information in a way that can be read automatically by computers. Linked data is a term coined by Tim Berners-Lee for a web of data that can be processed by machines. See Linked Open Data and semantic web technologies. See also http://linkeddata.org/.
LSQT (Last Stable Query Time)
Bitemporal. An internal database timestamp used to track a point in time. A document with system start time before the LSQT point can be queried but not updated or ingested, and a document after this point can be updated/ingested but not queried. See bitemporal and temporal.M
MarkLogic. The App Server on the Monitor Host that is configured to handle monitor requests. The Manage App Server is bound to port 8002 and is the App Server used by the Nagios plugin and the Monitoring Dashboard.
MarkLogic. A MarkLogic feature that works with AWS features to automatically create and provision the necessary AWS resources and provide MarkLogic with the information needed to manage your cluster. For details see The Managed Cluster Feature in the MarkLogic Server on Amazon EC2 Guide.
MarkLogic. Triples with a document root of
sem:triples are 'managed triples' in MarkLogic. Conceptually, managed triples are triples that are not embedded in any document. When you load and query triples as you would with a triple store - without reference to a document - you are generally working with managed triples. These triples can be updated using SPARQL Update. See unmanaged triples and triple.
Hadoop. A task which contributes to the map step of a job. A map task transforms the data in an input split into a set of output key-value pairs which can be further processed by a reduce task. A map task has no dependence on or awareness of other map tasks in the same job, so all the map tasks can run in parallel.
Hadoop. Programatically, a subclass of
org.apache.hadoop.mapreduce.Mapper. The mapper transforms map input key-value pairs into map output key-value pairs that can be consumed by reduce tasks. An input pair can map to zero, one, or many output pairs.
Cloud. The Amazon Web Services (AWS) service for publishing pay-per-use and free (no extra charge) public AMI's on amazon. For details, see .
Flexible Replication. The repository that gets updated by the applications. The master, in turn, replicates the updates to other repositories, each known as a Replica.
MarkLogic. The cluster on which the replicated documents are updated by the applications; shorthand for the cluster that hosts a Master Database.
MarkLogic. The content being replicated. For any piece of replicated content there is a Master and at least one copy.
MarkLogic. The database that stores and indexes all of the configuration data required to manage a cluster of one or more MarkLogic Servers. For Amazon Web Services (AWS), the SimpleDB service is used to implement the Metadata Database. For details, see http://docs.aws.amazon.com/AmazonSimpleDB/latest/GettingStartedGuide/Welcome.html.
Web. (Multipurpose Internet Mail Extension) A MIME type is a standard identifier used by email clients, web browsers, search engines, and other protocols to indicate the type of data that a file contains. In an HTTP request, a MIME type is referred to as Content-type. Due to their expanded use by other media, MIME types are referred to as Internet Media types.
mlcp (MarkLogic content pump)
MarkLogic. A command line tool for getting data into and out of a MarkLogic Server database.
MarkLogic. This can be any application that requests and makes use of monitoring data, such as a Web browser, a plugin for an existing monitoring tool, or the Monitoring Dashboad described in Using the MarkLogic Server Monitoring Dashboard in Monitoring MarkLogic Guide.
MarkLogic. The host in a MarkLogic Server cluster that uses the Monitor API to respond to requests for monitoring content from the monitor application and returns monitoring information for objects in the cluster.
MarkLogic. The timeframe since the dashboard page was last refreshed. For example, if you navigate from the Query Execution page to the Rates and Loads page, you have ended the Query Execution session and started the Rates and Loads session.
Database. A transaction created in query or update transaction mode, consisting of one or more statements which commit or rollback together. Changes made by one statement in the transaction are visible to subsequent statements in the same transaction prior to commit. Multi-statement transactions must be explicitly committed by calling XX.
Cloud. A mode of software operation where multiple independent instances of one or multiple applications operate in a shared environment. The instances (tenants) are logically isolated, but physically integrated. Multi-tenancy is an important feature of cloud computing.
MVCC (Multi Version Concurrency Control)N
N3 (Notation 3)
Semantics. A serialized format for expressing data in the RDF (Resource Description Framework) data model with the syntax similar to SPARQL. RDF represents information as a triple consisting of Subject, Predicate, and Object. RDF/XML and Turtle (Terse RDF Triple Language) are other serializations of RDF.
Nagios. Nagios is an open source software application for computer system monitoring, network monitoring, and infrastructure monitoring. Nagios offers monitoring and alerting services for servers, switches, applications, and services. See http://www.nagios.org/ for more information.
Nagios. A generic Perl script that plugs into your Nagios environment to manage the requests and responses between Nagios and MarkLogic Server. Nagios uses the results returned from the plugin to display the current status of objects in a MarkLogic cluster.
XML. In XML (Extended Markup Language), XQuery, and SPARQL, element and attribute nodes are always in a namespace, even if that namespace is the empty namespace (sometimes called no namespace). Each namespace has a IRI (Internationalized Resource Identifier) associated with it. An IRI is essentially a unique string that identifies the namespace.
MarkLogic. The latest data or information, without any history. See bitemporal.
NPM (Node Package Manager)
Semantics. An RDF resource, which in turn may be the Subject in a triple. An object may be a typed literal. See also Predicate, RDF (Resource Description Framework), and RDF Datatypes in the Semantics Developer's Guide.
MarkLogic. A partition or forest that is not available for queries, but is tracked by the cluster. The benefit of taking data offline is to spare the RAM, CPU, and network resources for the online data.
Semantics. An ontology provides a semantic model of (a portion of) the world. An ontology is generally expressed as triples (like 'a Henley is a shirt') in an ontology language such as RDFS (Resource Description Framework Schema) or OWL (Web Ontology Language). The triples that make up an ontology are ontology triples. Ontologies can include vocabularies, a controlled set of terms used to define concepts and relationships.
ORM (Object Relational Mapping)
Hadoop. The abstract superclass,
org.apache.hadoop.mapreduce.OutputFormat, of classes that store output key-value pairs during the reduce phase. The Apache Hadoop MapReduce API includes OutputFormat subclasses for using HDFS for output. The MarkLogic Connector for Hadoop API provides OutputFormat subclasses for using a MarkLogic Server database as an output destination. See OutputFormat Subclasses in the MarkLogic Connector for Hadoop Developer's Guide.
OWL (Web Ontology Language)
Semantics. OWL and OWL2 are knowledge representation languages or ontology languages for authoring ontologies for semantic web technologies. See the W3C specification for OWL (http://www.w3.org/TR/owl-ref/) and OWL 2 (http://www.w3.org/TR/owl2-overview/).P
MarkLogic. An addition to the end of a resource address to filter and/or format the view returned from MarkLogic Server. Parameters are expressed as query strings in the URL and are described in Specifying Parameters in a Resource Address in the Monitoring MarkLogic Guide.
MarkLogic. A set of forests sharing the same name prefix and same partition range definition. Typically forests in a partition share the same type of storage and configuration such as updates allowed, availability, and enabled status. Partitions are based on forest naming conventions. A forest's partition name prefix and the rest of the forest name are separated by a dash (-). For example, a forest named 2011-0001 belongs to the 2011 partition.
MarkLogic. Defines an element or attribute on which a range index, collection lexicon, or field is set and defines the context for the range set on the partitions in the database. The partition key is a database-level setting.
Semantics. See property path.
PEP (Policy Enforcement Point)
Security. A Policy Enforcement Point (PEP) receives a a directive from the Policy Decision Point (PDP) on what must be carried out before or after an access is approved. If the PEP is unable to comply with the directive, the approved access may or must not be realized and access denied.
MarkLogic. Permissions are on documents. A permission provides a role with the capability to perform certain actions (read, insert, update, execute) on a document or a protected collection. Permissions consist of a role and capabilities. Permissions are assigned to documents and collections. For details on permissions, see Document Permissions in the Understanding and Using Security Guide. See privilege.
Content Processing Framework. A pipeline defines document states as a document moves through stages of content processing. You attach pipelines to domains, and the domains determine the documents on which a pipeline acts. In addition to defining document states, a pipeline specifies actions that occur under certain conditions. A pipeline is a core component of the CPF (Content Processing Framework). For more information, see Understanding and Using Pipelines in the Content Processing Framework Guide.
Geospatial. A geospatial point is the spot in the geospatial coordinate system representing the intersection of a given latitude and longitude. For more details, see Points in MarkLogic Server in the Search Developer's Guide.
POJO (Plain Old Java Object)
Security. A unique identity to which Kerberos can assign tickets. For example, in Kerberos, a user is a principal that consists of a user name and a server resource, described as a realm. Each user or service that participates in a Kerberos authentication realm must have a principal defined in the Kerberos database.
MarkLogic. Roles assigned to a user (or role) give privileges and permissions to the user (or role). There are different types of privileges. An execute privilege specifies a protected action. Only roles associated with the execute privilege can perform the protected action. A URI privilege specifies the right to create a document within a base URI. Only roles associated with the URI privilege can create documents within the base URI. See Role-Based Security Model (Authorization) in the Understanding and Using Security Guide for more about roles and privileges.
result() method that returns a Promise object. See Promise Result Handling Pattern in the Node.js Application Developer's Guide.
MarkLogic. A request or transaction in MarkLogic Server.
MarkLogic. An XML report containing statistics for all of the expressions evaluated while profiling was enabled. For a sample profile report, see Simple Enable and Disable Example in the Query Performance and Tuning Guide.
MarkLogic. An application which measures the performance characteristics of a running program (in the case MarkLogic Server, of an XQuery program).
XQuery. The expanded version of some XQuery code that is submitted to MarkLogic Server for evaluation, such as a query expression in a .xqy file or XQuery code submitted in an
xdmp:eval statement. The program consists not only of the code in the calling module, but also any imported modules that are called from the calling module, and any modules they might call, and so on.
Semantics. A possible route through a graph between two graph nodes, for example, 'show me Bill, and all his friends, and all their friends.' MarkLogic supports both enumerated paths and unenumerated paths, which are paths that use + or * or ? operators. See Property Path Expressions in the Semantics Developer's Guide.
MarkLogic. The proximity of search results is how close the results are to each other in a document. Proximity can apply to any type of search terms, including geospatial search terms. For example, you might want to find a search term dog that occurs within 10 words of a point in a given zip code.Q
QBE (Query By Example)
QBFR (Query-Based Flexible Replication)
MarkLogic. Combining alerts (based on reverse queries that can trigger Flexible Replication of data) provides query-based flexible replication of your data. QBFR can be used in a pull or push scenario. See Configuring Alerting With Flexible Replication in the Flexible Replication Guide.
QName (Qualified name)
XML. A QName acts as a valid identifier for elements and attributes. A QName is composed of the namespace name and the local name. Together these uniquely define how the element or attribute is identified and are used to reference particular elements or attributes within XML documents. See also namespace.
queries per second (QPS)
MarkLogic. A statement that contains no update calls. Query statements have a read-consistent view of the database. Since a query statement does not change the state of the database, the server optimizes it to hold no locks or lightweight locks, depending on the type of the containing transaction.
MarkLogic. A transaction which cannot perform any updates; a read-only transaction. A transaction consisting of a single query statement in auto transaction mode, or any transaction created in query transaction mode. Attempting to perform an update in a query transaction raises XDMP-UPDATEFUNCTIONFROMQUERY. Instead of acquiring locks, query transactions run at a particular system timestamp and have a read-consistent view of the database.R
MarkLogic. MarkLogic Server maintains a universal index for every database to rapidly search the text, structure, and combinations of the text and structure that are found within collections of XML and JSON documents. Queries against these documents may include search conditions based on inequalities (for example, price < 100.00 or date ? thisQtr) XML and JSON documents can incorporate numeric or date information. Specifying range indexes for these elements, attributes, and/or JSON properties will substantially accelerate the evaluation of these queries. See Range Indexes and Lexicons in Administrator's Guide for more information.
RDF (Resource Description Framework)
Semantics. RDF is an abstract data model used to represent facts and relationships, made up of Subject, Predicate, and Object as a triple. It can be serialized as Turtle (Terse RDF Triple Language), N3 (Notation 3), RDF/XML. RDF is a W3C specification with a defined vocabulary. See the W3C specification http://www.w3.org/TR/2014/NOTE-rdf11-primer-20140624/.
Semantics. See graph.
Semantics. A storage tool for the persistent storage, indexing, and query access to RDF graphs (triples). See triple store.
RDFS (Resource Description Framework Schema)
Semantics. A set of vocabularies, rules about structure and data modeling. In RDF, the RDFS specification lets you describe classes, properties, and metadata about those classes and properties. These rules enable you to infer new facts about your data from the schema. See ruleset.
Semantics. A serialized format for expressing data in the RDF (Resource Description Framework) data model with the syntax similar to SPARQL. RDF represents information as a triple consisting of Subject, Predicate, and Object. N3 (Notation 3) and Turtle (Terse RDF Triple Language) are other serializations for RDF.
Database. A set of read and write locks that lock documents for reading and update at the time the documents are accessed. MarkLogic Server uses readers/writers locks during update statements. Because update transactions only obtain locks as needed, update statements always see the latest version of a document. The view is still consistent for any given document from the time the document is locked. Once a document is locked, any update statements in other transactions wait for the lock to be released before updating the document. For more details, see Update Transactions: Readers/Writers Locks in the Application Developer's Guide.
Hadoop. A task that contributes to the reduce step of a job. A reduce task takes the results of the map tasks as input, produces a set of final result key-value pairs, and stores these results in a database or file system. A reduce task has no dependence on or awareness of other reduce tasks in the same job, so all the reduce tasks can run in parallel.
Hadoop. Programmatically, a subclass of org.apache.hadoop.mapreduce.Reducer. The reducer aggregates map output into final results during the reduce step of a job. The value portion of an input key-value pair for reduce is a list of all values sharing the same key. One input key-value pair can generate zero, one, or many output pairs.
Flexible Replication. To create a copy of a document in another database and to keep that copy in sync (possibly with some time-lag/latency) with the original. See Flexible Replication.
Flexible Replication. The specification of the set of documents to be replicated. This may be a collection or some other set definition. See Flexible Replication.
MarkLogic. Any invocation of a program, whether through an App Server, through a task server, through , or through any other means. In addition, certain client calls to App Servers (for example, loading an XML document through XCC, downloading an image through HTTP, or locking a document through WebDAV) are also requests.
MarkLogic. A URL that identifies a MarkLogic Server resource. Resource addresses are described in Resource Addresses in Administrator's Guide and Understanding REST Resources in Monitoring MarkLogic Guide.
REST (Representational State Transfer)
MarkLogic. An architecture style that, in the context of the MarkLogic REST API or monitoring MarkLogic Server, describes the use of HTTP to make calls between a client application and MarkLogic Server to create, update, delete and query content and metadata in the database
MarkLogic. An instantiation of the MarkLogic REST API against which applications can make RESTful HTTP requests. An instance consists of an HTTP App Server, a URL rewriter, a content database, a modules database, and the modules that implement the API. For details, see Administering MarkLogic REST API Instances in the REST Application Developer's Guide.
MarkLogic. A reverse query is the opposite of a regular query; it returns all of the queries, that if they were run, would match a document. Reverse queries are use in creating alerts. See Overview of Alerting Applications in MarkLogic Server in the Search Developer's Guide.
HTTP server. A method for declaring the rules by which an incoming HTTP request is 'rewritten' to target a different path, environment, and/or capability than the default for the server. This is an XQuery module that interprets the URL of an incoming HTTP request and rewrites it to an internal URL that services the request.
Security. A role is a named entity that provides authorization privileges and permissions to other roles or to users. You can assign roles to other roles (which can in turn include assignments to other roles, and so on). Roles are the fundamental building blocks that you use to implement your security policies. See also privilege. For details on roles, see Role-Based Security Model in the Understanding and Using Security Guide.
Database. Immediately terminate a transaction and discard all updates made by the transaction. All transactions are automatically rolled back on error. Multi-statement transactions may also be explicitly rolled back using
xdmp:rollback, or implicitly rolled back due to timeout or reaching the end of the session without calling .
RPO (Recovery Point Objective)
Database. The amount of data you can afford to lose in the event of a disaster. A low RPO means that you will restore the most data (at the cost of performance) and a high RPO means you will potentially store less data, but with less impact to performance. See lag limit.
Semantics. A set of inference rules. In MarkLogic, a ruleset may be built up by importing other rulesets. MarkLogic supports several rulesets that map to a common ontology language or subset (RDFS (Resource Description Framework Schema), OWL-Horst).S
S3 (Amazon Simple Storage Service)
Database. A representation of a SQL schema. A schema is implemented as an XML document in the schemas database and consists of a unique id, a name (which must also be unique), and a collection of views. During SQL execution, the schema provides the naming context for its views, which enables you to have multiple views of the same name in different schemas. The default schema is called 'main.'It is default is the sense that it is always implicitly available and first on the default schema search path for name resolution in SQL. Even though the 'main' schema is a default, you must create this schema.
Semantics. A set of standards and best practices for sharing linked data for use by applications over the Web. This includes the 'semantics' (context and meaning) of that data. Semantic web techonogies include the RDF (Resource Description Framework) standard, SPARQL, OWL (Web Ontology Language) and other ontology vocabularies. See also linked data.
Hadoop. A flat file of binary key-value pairs in one of the Apache Hadoop SequenceFile formats. The mlcp (MarkLogic content pump) tool only supports importing Text and BytesWritable values from a sequence file.
MarkLogic. Describes what to monitor and how to monitor one or more objects in a MarkLogic cluster. Services can define warning and critical thresholds for alerting and can monitor one or more objects in MarkLogic Server.
Hadoop. The process of sorting all map output values with the same key into a single (key, value-list) reduce input key-value pair. The shuffle happens between map and reduce. Portions of the shuffle can be performed by map tasks and portions by reduce tasks.
Database. Any transaction created in auto transaction mode. Single-statement transactions always contain only one statment and are automatically committed on successful completion or rolled back on error.
SKOS (Simple Knowledge Organization System)
Semantics. A W3C recommendation designed for representation of thesauri, classification schemes, taxonomies, subject-heading systems, or any other type of structured controlled vocabulary. See also thesaural relationship.
MarkLogic. A binary document stored in a MarkLogic database whose size does not exceed the large size threshold. For more information, see Choosing a Binary Format in the Loading Content Into MarkLogic Server Guide.
SOAP (Simple Object Access Protocol)
Web. A Web Services protocol for exchanging structured information in computer networks. It relies on Application Layer protocols, most notably Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) or Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP), for message negotiation and transmission.
Semantics. A recursive acronym for SPARQL Protocol and RDF Query Language (SPARQL), a query language designed for querying data in RDF (Resource Description Framework) format. MarkLogic supports SPARQL1.1.
Semantics. A means of conveying SPARQL queries from query clients to query processors, consisting of an abstract interface with bindings to HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol ) and SOAP (Simple Object Access Protocol).
Semantics. A language for making updates to triples in RDFS (Resource Description Framework Schema) format. MarkLogic suports SPARQL Update 1.1.
SSL (Secure Sockets Layer)
Security. A transaction security standard that provides encrypted protection between browsers and App Servers. When SSL is enabled for an App Server, browsers communicate with the App Server by means of an HTTPS connection, which is HTTP over an encrypted Secure Sockets Layer. HTTPS connections are widely used by banks and web vendors for secure transactions over the web.
XQuery. An XQuery main module, as defined by the W3C XQuery standard, to be evaluated by MarkLogic Server. A main module consists of an optional prolog and a complete XQuery expression. Statements are either query statements or update statements, determined statically through static analysis prior to beginning the statement evaluation.
MarkLogic. Content stored in the modules database of the App Server. MarkLogic Server responds directly to HTTP range requests (partial GETs) of static content. See Downloading Binary Content With HTTP Range Requests in the Application Developer's Guide.
MarkLogic. As part of content processing (create, update, and delete), CPF (Content Processing Framework) automatically handles the document status change events and sets a state (or cleans up in the case of delete) for the document. When you want the result of these changes to move a document in or out of document processing, it is known as a status change. The Status Change Handling pipeline performs these tasks automatically.
MarkLogic. Words that are derived from the same meaning and part of speech have the same stem (for example, 'mouse' and 'mice'). Some words can have multiple stems (if the same word can be used as a different part of speech, or if there are two words with the same spelling), and if you use advanced stemming (which can find multiple stems for a word), then stemmed search will find all of the words having the same stem as any of the stems.
MarkLogic. When stemming is enabled, MarkLogic Server automatically searches for words that come from the same stem of the word specified in the query, not just the exact string specified in the query. The purpose of stemming is to increase the recall for a search. A stemmed search for a word finds the exact same terms as well as terms that derive from the same meaning and part of speech as the search term. See Stemming in MarkLogic Server in the Search Developer's Guide.
MarkLogic. A simple search string constructed using either the default MarkLogic Server search grammar, or a user-defined grammar. For example, 'cat' and 'cat OR dog' are string queries.
MarkLogic. The pre-parsed representation of a query, expressed as XML or JSON. Structured queries allow you to express complex queries very efficiently. For details, see Querying Documents and Metadata in the REST Application Developer's Guide and Searching Using Structured Queries in the Search Developer's Guide.
Database. A database containing other databases (sub-databases) so that they can be queried as if they were a single logical database.
General. Synchronous processing happens 'at the same time'. This form of input/output processing blocks I/O until the operation has finished. Synchronous processing does not permit other processing to continue before/until the transmission has finished. See asynchronous.
MarkLogic. A number maintained by MarkLogic Server that increases every time a change or a set of changes occurs in any of the databases in a system (including configuration changes from any host in a cluster). Each fragment stored in a database has system timestamps associated with it to determine the range of timestamps during which the fragment is valid.T
MarkLogic. A term is anything stored in the Universal Index; for example words, stems, two-word phrases, value of a declared field, and so on. What terms that you have in your Universal Index depends on your index settings.
Semantics. A conceptual hierarchy built by terms that are interlinked with a few very generic relationships. A thesaurus is a hierarchical representation of a set of terms related by broader term, narrower term, synonym, and so on. See SKOS (Simple Knowledge Organization System).
Database. A set of one or more statements which either all fail or all succeed. A transaction is either an update transaction or a query (read-only) transaction, depending on the transaction mode and the kind of statements in the transaction. A transaction is either a single-statement transaction or a multi-statement transaction, depending on the transaction mode at the time it is created.
Database. Controls the type and the commit semantics of newly created transactions. Mode is one of auto, query, or update. In the default mode, auto, all transactions are single-statement transaction. In query or update mode, all transactions are multi-statement transaction. To learn more about transaction mode, see Transaction Mode in the Application Developer's Guide.
XML. XML documents form a tree structure (a document tree), starting at the 'root' (root element) with 'branches' containing 'leaves' (child elements and attributes). The last line of the document is a the closing tag for the root element. The root element is the parent of the all the other elements. So an XML document tree has a root, branches, and leaves.
MarkLogic. Triggers listen for certain events (document create, delete, update, or the database coming online) to occur, and then invoke an XQuery module to run after the event occurs. A trigger is used to as part of CPF (Content Processing Framework). See Overview of Triggers in the Application Developer's Guide.
Semantics. A triple is an instance of a data model representing a fact or relationship, made up Subject, Predicate, Object. Triples can be serialized different formats like Turtle (Terse RDF Triple Language) ,N3 (Notation 3), or RDF/XML. See managed triples and unmanaged triples, RDF (Resource Description Framework) and graph. See also inference.
Semantics. See RDF Triple Store.
Turtle (Terse RDF Triple Language)
Semantics. A format for expressing data in the RDF (Resource Description Framework) data model with the syntax similar to SPARQL. RDF represents information as a triple consisting of Subject, Predicate, and Object. RDF/XML and N3 (Notation 3) are other serializations of RDF.U
UDDI (Universal Description, Discovery and Integration)
Web. UDDI is a platform-independent, XML-based registry to register and locate web service applications and businesses on the Internet. UDDI is an open industry initiative, for enabling businesses to publish service listings and discover each other.
UDF (User Defined Function)
MarkLogic. Aggregated user-defined functions or UDFs are functions that analyze values in lexicons and range indexes. Aggregate functions are best used for analyses that produce a small number of results, rather than analyses that produce results in proportion to the number of range index values or the number of documents processed. For more information, see User-Defined Functions in the Application Developer's Guide.
MarkLogic. One index maintained by MarkLogic Server for every database in order to rapidly search the text, structure, and combinations of the text and structure that are found within collections of XML documents. MarkLogic also has a triple index, collection lexicon (an index), security indexes, and others. See term.
MarkLogic. Triples that are embedded in a document and have an element root of
sem:triple are 'unmanaged' triples. You don't need the outer element of
sem:triples for an unmanaged triple, even if you have more than one
sem:triple, but you do need the Subject, Predicate, and Object to be in
sem:triple elements. Unmanaged triples may also be called embedded triples. See also triple and managed triples.
Database. A statement with the potential to perform updates (that is, it contains one or more update calls). A statement may be categorized as an update statement whether or not the statement performs an update at runtime. Update statements run with readers/writers locks, obtaining locks as needed for documents accessed in the statement.
Database. A transaction performs updates (make changes to the database) like a transaction consisting of a single update statement in auto transaction mode, or any transaction created under update transaction mode. Update transactions run with readers/writers locks, obtaining locks as needed for documents accessed in the transaction.
URI (Uniform Resource Identifier)
Web. A URI is a string of a standardized form to uniquely identify resources. URIs are limited to a subset of the ASCII character set. See also IRI (Internationalized Resource Identifier), URL (Uniform Resource Locator), and URN (Uniform Resource Name).
MarkLogic. A URI Privilege provides the authority to create documents within a base URI. When a URI privilege exists for a base URI (Uniform Resource Identifier), only users assigned to roles that have the URI privilege can create documents with URIs starting with the base string. See also execute privilege, amp, privilege, permission, and role. For details on URI privileges, see Protecting Documents in the Understanding and Using Security Guide.
URL (Uniform Resource Locator)
Web. A subset of URI that provides the access mechanism and network location of a resource on the World Wide Web. For example, http://www.example.org/news. See also IRI (Internationalized Resource Identifier), URI (Uniform Resource Identifier), and URN (Uniform Resource Name).
URN (Uniform Resource Name)
Web. A subtype of URI used for defining classes, properties, or individuals. For example, identifying books by their ISBN number. See also IRI (Internationalized Resource Identifier), URI (Uniform Resource Identifier), URL (Uniform Resource Locator).
MarkLogic. A user is a named entity used to authenticate a request to an HTTP, WebDAV, ODBC, or XDBC server. For details on users, see Authenticating Users in the Understanding and Using Security Guide.V
SQL. A representation of a SQL view. A view is implemented as an XML document in the schemas database and consists of a unique id, a name (which must be unique in the context of a particular schema), a view scope, and a sequence of column specifications. See Schemas and Views in the SQL Data Modeling Guide.
Database. The returned monitoring information about a resource. You can have different views of the same resource. A view can be for a single resource (known as an item view) or a number of resources (known as a 'list view').
Database. Used to constrain the subset of the database to which the view applies. A view scope can either limit rows in the view to documents with a specific element (localname + namespace) or to documents in a particular collection.
Semantics. A collection of specific terms used to classify concepts, relationships, and definitions. Vocabularies such as foaf (friend of a friend) and dc (Dublin Core) define concepts and relationships used to describe and represent facts. See ontology.W
WSDL (Web Service Definition Language)
Web. An XML format for describing network services as a set of endpoints operating on messages containing either document-oriented or procedure-oriented information. The operations and messages are described abstractly, and then bound to a concrete network protocol and message format to define an endpoint.X
XCC (XML Content Connector)
MarkLogic. XCC is an API used to communicate with MarkLogic Server from Java or .NET middleware applications. The MarkLogic XCC application is a Java-based connector for accessing content in the server.
MarkLogic. XDBC Servers allow XCC (XML Content Connector) applications to communicate with MarkLogic Server. XDBC is analogous to ODBC, a standard middleware protocol used for accessing relational databases, but XDBC is not used for relational data. See XDBC Server Overview in the Administrator's Guide.
XDM (XQuery and XPath Data Model)
XML. The data model shared by XQuery, XPath (XML Path language), and XSLT (Extensible Stylesheet Language Transformations) programming languages.
XML (Extended Markup Language)
XML. A markup language defining a set of rules for encoding documents in human and machine-readable format. XML was designed to facilitate usability on the Web, to be simple to use, and easily generalized. See also XPath (XML Path language) and XSLT (Extensible Stylesheet Language Transformations).
XMLns (XML namespace)
XPath (XML Path language)
XML. XPath is used for selecting nodes from an XML (Extended Markup Language) document. Based on a tree representation of the XML document, XPath can navigate around the tree, selecting nodes. It can also be used to compute values from the contents of an XML document.
XML. Language for querying XML (Extended Markup Language) documents. XQuery is a functional programming language for searching and transforming collections of structured and unstructured data.
XML. This is the XQuery main module fully expanded, with any XQuery library modules needed for its evaluation. An XQuery program is sometimes referred to as a query, a statement, or a request. For more details on this terminology, see Understanding Transactions in MarkLogic Server in the Application Developer's Guide.
XSD (XML Schema Definition)
XML. XSD specifies how to formally describe the elements in an XML (Extended Markup Language) document. It can be used to verify each piece of item content in a document, to check that the item adheres to the description of its element. XSD can be used to express a set of rules to which an XML document must conform in order to be considered 'valid' according to that schema.
XSLT (Extensible Stylesheet Language Transformations)Y, Z